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Stone Pine

By:   |   Jul 08, 2018   |   Views: 12   |   Comments: 0

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Italian Stone Pine
Stone Pine forestCosta de la Luz, Spain
Conservation status
Least Concern(IUCN 2.3)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Plantae
Division:
Pinophyta
Class:
Pinopsida
Order:
Pinales
Family:
Pinaceae
Genus:
Pinus
Subgenus:
Pinus
Species:
P. pinea
Binomial name
Pinus pineaL.
The (Italian) Stone Pine (or Umbrella Pine) (Pinus pinea; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native of Southern Europe in the Mediterranean region. This tree has been exploited for its edible pine nuts since prehistoric times. It is also a widespread horticultural tree, besides being cultivated for the seeds.

Juvenile (left) and adult foliage of Stone Pine
The Stone Pine can exceed 25 m height, though is usually rather less tall, 12-20 m being more normal. It has a very characteristic umbrella-like shape, with a short trunk and very broad, smoothly rounded to nearly flat crown. The bark is thick, red-brown and deeply fissured into broad vertical plates. The flexible mid-green leaves are needle-like, in bundles of two, and are 10-20cm long (exceptionally up to 30cm). Young trees up to 5-10years old bear juvenile leaves, which are very different, single (not paired), 2-4cm long, glaucous blue-green; the adult leaves appear mixed with juvenile leaves from the fourth or fifth year on, replacing it fully by around the 10th year. Juvenile leaves are also produced in re-growth following injury, such as a broken shoot, on older trees.
The cones are broad ovoid, 8-15cm long, and take 36months to mature, longer than any other pine. The seeds (pine nuts, pi?ones, pinh?es or pinoli) are large, 2cm long, pale brown with a powdery black coating which rubs off easily, and have a rudimentary 4-8mm wing which falls off very easily. The wing is ineffective for wind dispersal, and the seeds are animal-dispersed, originally mainly by the azure-winged magpie, but in recent history, very largely by humans.

Stone Pine cone and seeds
The original range Stone Pine included Spain, Portugal and North Africa including major parts of the Sahara Desert, especially Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, when it was a more humid climate. It has been cultivated extensively for at least 6,000years for the edible seeds. These have been trade items since early historic times. It is cultivated and often naturalised throughout the Mediterranean region, for so long that it is often considered native, while more recently (since about 1700) been introduced to other areas with Mediterranean climates. It is now naturalised in South Africa (where it is listed as an invasive species) and commonly planted in California, Australia, and western Europe north to southern Scotland. On the East Coast of the United States, it can survive as far north as New Jersey, though it will usually suffer significant damage to its foliage during winter that far north. Small specimens are grown in large planters or are used for Bonsai, and year-old seedlings are also widely sold as 20-30cm tall table-top christmas trees.

Close-up of the bark's vertical texture

Umbrella pine Pinus pinea in a street in Rome, Italy.
The Stone Pine has also been called Italian Stone Pine, European Nut Pine, Umbrella Pine (not to be confused with the Japanese Umbrella-pine) and Parasol Pine. It has also occasionally been listed under the invalid name Pinus sativa.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pinus pinea
References
Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Pinus pinea. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. 
Categories: IUCN Red List least concern species | Edible nuts and seeds | Trees of Mediterranean climate | Drought tolerant trees | Pinus(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about wholes t shirt,second hand shirts, . The Designer Hand printed T-Shirts products should be show more here!

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