Smart Exercise and Bodybuilding Require Nose Breathing for Glutamine Synthesis
The human brain and other body parts can fix CO2 gas and synthesize glutamine using this carbon dioxide fixation. Bear in mind that glutamine is the most required amino acid to build the tissues in the body. It is very popular in bodybuilding and present in bodybuilding protein supplements.
Numerous medical research studies, some of them written in the 1960's, describe details of this CO2 fixation in mammalian brains and in other sites. Researchers from the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Departments of Biochemistry and Neurological Surgery, (College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University New York, N.Y.), in their article Quantitative aspects of CO2 fixation in mammalian brain in vivo, claimed that this is an essential process with significant contribution to brain repair (Waelsch et al, 1964).
Dr. Pincus from the Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) discovered that the rate of glutamine production is increased in rats is increased with increasing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 up to 5% (Pincus, 1969). Normal concentration of CO2 in the human lungs and arterial blood is about 5.5-6%. This result was published in Experimental Neurology.
What it has to do with physical exercise and bodybuilding workouts? Physical exercise has the most profound effect on arterial CO2 levels and automatic breathing patterns. Furthermore, physical exercise is the main natural factor that can increase body oxygen levels. (There is a special breath holding test used to evaluate body oxygen content.)
Here, it is crucial to realize that when we breathe more air at rest than the medical norm (faster or deeper), we reduce oxygen levels in body cells. Therefore, those people who breathe slower 24/7 have more oxygen in the brain and other organs. Those people who hyperventilate (over 90% of modern population - search for "Hyperventilation Prevalence Medical Research") have reduced oxygenation in cells.
When we exercise with mouth breathing, for most people CO2 becomes less, and this causes reduced glutamine synthesis. Nasal breathing is harder, but it is more effective for increased rates of glutamine synthesis. It is harder for people with low body oxygen levels since their have too heavy breathing at rest.
However, if they reduce intensity of exercise and workouts and decide to breathe only through the nose, they can get more CO2 in the blood and gradually (some weeks) increase body oxygen levels and achieve tremendous health benefits related to glutamine synthesis for natural bodybuilding, improved sleep, recovery rates, well being and other life quality parameters.
Waelsch H, Berl S, Rossi CA, Clarke DD, Purpura DP, Quantitative aspects of CO2 fixation in mammalian brain in vivo, J. Neurochem. Oct 1964, 11: 717-728.
Pincus JH, Carbon dioxide fixation in rat brain: Relationship to cerebral excitability, Experimental Neurology, Volume 24, Issue 3, July 1969, Pages 339-347