India on the verge of diabetes explosion
Many Indians are eating more and taking less exercise
The world's largest diabetes epidemic is threatening India, which is ill-equipped to cope, say experts.
The amount of type II, or adult-onset diabetes in India is high, and rising, suggests health data.
India has a population of over billion, and its citizens appear prone to developing diabetes later in life, and are certainly more susceptible to its complications such as high blood pressure leading to coronary heart disease.
Part of the blame falls on the adoption of a more Western way of life, junx food, involving fatty food and too little exercise.
Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of diabetes.
Dr Vikram Seshaiah, Medical Director of the Diabetes Unit of Apollo Hospitals in Chennai, told the annual conference of the Association of Physicians of India: "By 2005, we will have 30 to 35 million diabetics in India, and every fifth diabetic in the world will be Indian.
"Epidemiological data shows that now only the prevalence of type II diabetes is very high in the urban population, but it is on an increase."
Another problem confronting the Indian health authorities is the relatively young age at which diabetes is being diagnosed in many patients.
A study of complication in more than 3000 diabetics by the Diabetes Research Centre in Chennai showed that many had suffered eye, nerve or other tissue damage by the time diagnosis could be made.
Heart disease toll
More than 1/3rd of patients had high blood pressure, while 11.4% had developed coronary heart disease.
Dr Seshaiah told Reuters: "Our hospitals cannot manage this level of complications.
"In Government Royapettah Hospital in Chennai, the patients attending the diabetic clinic have increased from 6,191 in 1993 to a staggering figure of 19,992 by 1999."
"Before people ate less calorific food and got more exercise. Now it's the reverse and Indians are getting overweight," said Dr Rekha Sharma, a dietician at one of Delhi's leading hospitals.
Despite this impending threat, the World Health Organization recently listed the biggest threats to health in India as smoking and HIV.
Other experts say that more efficient food production says that many Indians are at present better nourished than at any point in the last century.
Diabetes occurs when the body can no longer produce enough of the hormone insulin to properly regulate the levels of sugar in the bloodstream.
Type I diabetes, often referred to as juvenile diabetes, happens when the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin are destroyed.
Patients require daily insulin injections, and a cautiously controlled diet, for life.
The more common variety, type II diabetes, generally happens later in life, and happens because the cells of the body become less responsive to the regulatory effects of insulin.
This, coupled with a trend to produce less insulin overall, again leads to levels of glucose sugar in the bloodstream becoming too high, eventually causing tissue damage.
Some type II diabetics can control the trouble with diet restrictions and exercise, but many also need extra insulin in the form of tablets or injections.
Some natural supplements can help the body by stimulating pancreas to produce insulin and eradicate diabetes.
In the US, one in ten adults is thought to suffer from diabetes.