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Consumer IR, or CIR, refers to a wide variety of devices employing the infrared electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communications. Most commonly found in television remote controls, infrared ports are equally ubiquitous in consumer electronics, such as PDAs, laptops, and computers. The functionality of CIR is as broad as the consumer electronics that carry it. For instance, a television remote control can convey a "channel up" command to the television, while a computer might be able to surf the internet solely via CIR. The type, speed, bandwidth, and power of the transmitted information depends on the particular CIR protocol employed.
Since the Consumer IR protocols are for the most part not standardized, computers and universal remotes often memorize a bit stream, possibly with compression and possibly without determining the actual bit rate, and play it back. Similarities between remotes are often largely the accidental result of the finite selection of infrared encoder/decoder chips (though now microcontrollers are also used) and IR receiver modules or imitation of the older chips rather than by design. Manufacturers of consumer appliances often do reuse the same protocol on many similar devices, though for each manufacturer and device type there are usually multiple protocols in use; simply look at the code listings for any universal remote.
CIR and Protocol Implementation
With the ready availability of inexpensive microcontroller chips, many remotes may be based on such chips today rather than dedicated remote control encoder chips. This makes it easier to keep the same codes when moving the buttons on the remote.
Also, the decoder functionality will often be integrated into a more complicated micro-controller which controls the A/V device, eliminating the need for the separate chip. In the absence of a viable standard, the microcontrollers can be used to emulate the ambiguous protocols used by the old dedicated encoder/decoder chips and it appears that this is often the case. There are even stripped down 4 bit mask programmable microcontrollers designed only for remote control use (such as NEC uPD6124A (discontinued), uPD6125A (discontinued), uPD6126A (discontinued), uPD6132, uPD6133, uPD6134, ?PD1724x, uPD67AMC, uPD68AMC, uPD68AMC, uPD6P9M1MC (OTP), upd6PLM3MC (OTP), and ?PD17932x (8-bit)). These offer keyboard wake, low power standby modes, and sample controller code though similar features are present on more general PIC microcontrollers.
CIR-equipped Consumer Electronics
Sony manufactured a number of consumer devices of different types which shared a common protocol, called S-link. A jack on each device allowed the remote control signals to be interconnected between devices. The protocol included the useful but unusual feature of supporting more than one of the same type of device (such as multiple CD changers). Some A/V components could generate informational status codes that could be used to do things like automatically stop your tape deck when the CD you were recording stopped playing. Software running on a PC with a suitable interface could also control the A/V components and monitor their activity; for example, your computer could tell what disk and track were playing in your CD changer and look up the titles in one of the internet CD databases. Sony charges $5000 for access to the S-Link documentation.
Some infrared wireless PC keyboards and mice use protocols similar to Consumer IR devices. Some PC remote controls used for controlling computer media players, controlling presentation software, or other applications also use Consumer IR style protocols. Some computer remotes, keyboards, and mice may also use IrDA protocol though IrDA was designed for very short range use.
The RC-5 and RECS-80 codes developed by Philips have been casually referred to as international standards . However, the RECS-80 protocol was prone to interference and was quickly replaced by the RC-5 protocol. Although it appears that they were proprietary protocols developed by Philips, they were also adopted by various other manufacturers, specifically European- and US-based ones. This allowed interoperability between the remote handsets and equipment of various brands. The RC-5 code was, and still is, used by many US- and European-based manufacturers of specialty audio/video equipment. Unfortunately documentation of the standard commands were not widely distributed. Therefore there are some brands of equipment that use non-standard commands, causing interference with other equipment also using the RC-5 protocol.
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