Anti Lock Braking System
Anti lock braking system, abbreviated as ABS, is an advanced car security system fitted in many of the modern Indian cars to prevent skidding. The term is derived from the German term â¬Ëantiblockiersystem'.
The main objective of anti-lock braking system is to enhance stability and stopping capability of the car. While driving on slopes or slippery surfaces, the car has a tendency of skidding. In such cases, the innovative anti lock brakes help in locking the wheels and prevent skidding. Locked wheels on concrete cement sometimes create flat spots but in case of anti lock brakes, these spots are prevented.
An ABS system mainly comprise of electronic control unit, four wheel sensors, hydraulic valves and vehicle brakes. The electronic control unit helps in monitoring and regulating the rotational speed of each wheel. Four wheel sensors help in scanning the speed of each wheel and if the control unit reads low speed then other wheels are locked automatically. Hydraulic valves help in reducing the pressure on each wheel, effectively lowering down the braking force on individual wheels. Vehicle brakes further help in building pressure back up through the hydraulic motor.
Most of the new cars found on Indian roads are equipped with anti lock brakes composed of soft iron, mainly cast. Iron is used because it has high magnetic permeability and low magnetic reluctance. These properties help in passing magnetization to each tooth of the brake and cause momentary concentration. The electronic controller is composed of cast aluminium housing and the hydraulic brakes are made using copper coil elements with steel valves and bodies. They are housed in the same casing composed of cast aluminum. All the electrical wiring in the system is composed of copper usually with cross-linked polyethylene insulation. Connectors are made using plastic with internal copper contacts.
There are mainly three types of anti-lock brakes: four channel four sensors ABS, three channel three sensors ABS and one channel one sensor ABS. Four channel four sensors ABS is a system with speed sensors fitted on all four wheels with a separate valve. This helps in monitoring rotation speed of each wheel and ensures that each wheel achieves maximum braking force. Three channel three sensors ABS is a system with speed sensors and valves fitted on each of the front wheels and one common sensors and valve for both the rear wheels. This helps in monitoring the speed of individual front wheels for maximum braking force and combined monitoring of rear wheels which reduces the braking force. One channel one sensor is a system with one sensor and one valve for monitoring all four wheels. This system is mainly used in trucks.