An Appraisal of Concordance of Temperament with Psychological disorders
There is a comprehensive description of Amraze Nafsaniya (Psychological disorders) in classical Unani literature like Firdausul Hikmat by Raban Tabri, Alqanoon Fit Tib by Ibn Sina, Kamilus Sana by Majoosi, Zakheera Khawarzam Shahi by Ismail Jurjani, Akseere Azam by Mohd Azam Khan etc. These disorders are well known since Greco-Arabic period. Unani physicians not only described the normal structure and functions of brain but also elucidated the aetiology, clinical presentation, complications and management of various diseases in their treatises.
Psychological disorders are the major problem in the world, people from all over the world irrespective of culture and economic background suffer from mental disorders. These disorders posed a great challenge to the medical fraternity particularly in the developed countries. According to the World Health Report, approximately 450 million people suffer from a mental or behavioural disorders, yet only a small minority of these receive even the most basic treatment.
It was the Buqrat, who firstly postulated the concept of disease due to imbalance of humors and classified mental disorders into three categories as mania, melancholia and hysteria.Jalinoos has elucidated several syndromes including dysthymia, paranoia and the role of sexual excitement and anxiety in hysteria. Similarly Razi and Rabban Tabri has classified psychic disorders into 13 entities including Â Malekholia,Â Waswasah,Â Mania, Sahar, Tawahhush, Hizyan, Ishque, khafqan,Â Fasade khayal, Fasade aql, Nisyan, Subat, Dawi, Duwar, Kaboos etc.
The aetiogy of these disorders has been attributed mainly to sue Mizaj of brain which may be with or without involvement of vitiated humours Â especially safra and sauda, causing defects Â in the faculties of brain viz. Butlaan, Nuqsaan, Tashweesh. The butlan and nuqsaan occurs either due to sue mizaj barid ratab or due to sue mizaj barid sada, whereas Tashweesh occurs due to safrawi or saudawi temperament. The dominance of safrawi temperament in brain results in vicious thoughts, sleeplessness, abnormal movements, defect in quwwate fikr and quwwate zikr or hafiz, whilst saudawi temperament produces palpitation, anxiety, stress, grief, pain, false hallucinations, delusions, misconceptions and phobia of unknown objects, abnormal movements and features of madness.
\The disease occurring mainly due to sue mizaj safrawi and sue mizaj saudawiÂ areÂ known as Tashweesh andas Malekholia respectively. Unani medicine has been treating psycho-somatic disorders rationally since antiquity based on its holistic approach. The actual modality of treatment is primarily aimed to restore the normal mizaj of patient by moderation and correction of sue mizaj and secondly to restore the balance in the quality and quantity of Akhlate Arba in the body through various means of Istifragh of abnormal and deranged humors.